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8. Rate of Cellulose Decomposition vs Impurities Found on the Shroud

J. L. Banyasz, S. Li, J. Lyons-Hart, and K. H. Shafer [Fuel 80 (2001) 1757-1763] studied real-time evolution of formaldehyde, hydroxyacetaldehyde, CO, and CO2 from pure microcrystalline cellulose by EGA/FTIR (effluent gas analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry). They detected 10 compounds simultaneously in the gas phase by FTIR. The cellulose decomposition is very complex. … Continue reading

9. How it is Possible to get Image Only on Topmost Surface of Shroud

Because the cellulose was not involved in image formation, the color must have formed in impurities on the surfaces of the image fibers. Independent observations have proved that all of the image color resides in a very thin layer on the outside surfaces of colored fibers. Evaporation concentration can explain the superficial nature of the … Continue reading

10. Natural Process Can Explain Doubly-Superficial Image on Shroud

When a cloth is dried on a line, impurities concentrate on both evaporating surfaces; however, more impurities will deposit on whichever surface dries faster. Any concentration of impurities can take part in the image-formation reactions. This can explain the "doubly ­superficial" image.

11. Rate of Human Body Decomposition. What are the Products?

The University of Tennessee maintains an experimental area where observations are made on decomposing corpses. They find that flies lay their eggs in wounds on dead bodies, and maggots appear before 30 hours at about 23ÂșC. This approximates the time required for liquid decomposition products to begin to appear on the surface of a body. … Continue reading

12. Flax Fibers not Involved in Image Formation on Shroud of Turin

Prof. Alan Adler of Western Connecticut University found that the image color could be reduced with a diimide reagent, leaving colorless, undamaged linen fibers behind. This confirmed spectral data that indicated that the image color was a result of complex conjugated double bonds; however, it proved that image color was found only on the outer … Continue reading

13. Other Ways than Radiocarbon to Date Shroud of Turin-Carbon 14

Archaeologists use many different methods to estimate the age of artifacts and/or soil strata that contain artifacts. One of the most important ways is to observe changes in technology: methods used to make tools change with time. There is a big difference between the hand axes made during the Paleolithic and fine arrow points made … Continue reading

14. Image Properties Observed Looking at 1532 Fire Damage to Shroud

[Answer for this question is the same as for The 2002 restoration consequences] Although the fire of 1532 nearly destroyed the Shroud, it created opportunities for many types of chemical studies. We would never use the same destructive methods of observation on an undamaged relic, but misadventure gave us many unexpected options. The important fact … Continue reading

15. Future Scientific Study Options Following 2002 Restoration

[Answer for this question is the same as for The 1532 fire and image properties] Although the fire of 1532 nearly destroyed the Shroud, it created opportunities for many types of chemical studies. We would never use the same destructive methods of observation on an undamaged relic, but misadventure gave us many unexpected options. The … Continue reading

16. Optical and Physical Properties of Flax Fibers on Turin Shroud

Flax fibers look like small lengths of bamboo under a microscope. The gross internal composition of a flax fiber is shown in the figure (after Cardamone). The cellulose molecules in flax fibers are folded back and forth in a fairly regular arrangement, and they show the properties of crystallinity. The fibers are composed of closely … Continue reading

17. Image Properties Observed Objectively by Scientific Methods

The image is extremely faint and difficult to see. Much more detail can be seen in contrast-enhanced and ultraviolet photographs; however, they are somewhat misleading to studies on image formation. Whatever produced the image color did not produce very much color. Scientific observations were planned in order to learn as much as possible about the … Continue reading